Soviet Union's Diversion of the Jaxartes and Oxus Rivers Drain the Aral Sea Dry
The Jaxartes and Oxus Rivers both were important during Alexander's Afghan campaign and both flow into the Aral Sea. Today the rivers are known as the Syr Darya and Amu Darya Rivers respectively and were diverted from the Aral Sea by the former Soviet Union. This precipitated a slow draining of the Aral Sea as the above picture illustrates.
Today the Aral Sea is almost completely dried up with the above image being the latest satellite image of the former lake. Below is a link to the article.